The refusal to offer concessions or even open a dialogue with the protesters creates a "vicious circle" whereby those in the movement have no choice other than to continue demonstrating or tow Beijing's line, said Joseph Cheng a political analyst now retired from the City University of Hong Kong.
That will include more lessons on patriotism in the school curriculum, more spending on free tours of key sites in mainland China glorifying the party and economic inducements such as the offer of high-paying jobs in the Pearl River Delta surrounding Hong Kong.
Protesters use traffic cones to cover the tear gas canisters fired by riot police.
British Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab called for the probe on Friday after a phone call with Hong Kong Chief Executive Carrie Lam, the Foreign Office in London said in a statement.
"The Chinese side seriously urges the United Kingdom to stop its interference in China's internal affairs and stop making random and inflammatory accusations on Hong Kong", she said, adding that Hong Kong was no longer a British colony and Britain has no supervisory rights.
The protests also come at a sensitive time for President Xi Jinping, who after removing presidential term limits a year ago effectively made himself leader for life.
Earlier, afternoon protest marches went ahead in two areas, Wong Tai Sin and Tai Po, despite a police refusal of permission for the gatherings.
Tear gas was also used against protesters in several places in Kowloon, the main built-up area on the mainland side of Hong Kong harbour.
"I don't care if it is legal or illegal", said 18-year-old university student Polly". "They will say anything".
The fresh protests marked the 10th weekend that demonstrators have taken to the streets in a movement that began in opposition to a bill allowing extradition to China, but has become a call for greater democratic freedoms.
The crowd blocked the path of a police vehicle that appeared to contain a woman who just had been arrested.
Police said they arrested 16 people during the protests on Saturday, on charges including unlawful assembly and possession of an offensive weapon. "If we are afraid, if we are not coming out to rally, we are encouraging these people to spread the terror", she said.
Demonstrators are nine weeks into protesting and have demands for more democratic freedoms.
Opponents of the proposed extradition law said it would hurt the independence of Hong Kong courts and expose residents to political cases.
Beijing has condemned some protesters as violent radicals spurred on by foreign forces bent on containing China's development.
At Tsim Sha Tsui police station, authorities said, one officer was taken to the hospital after he sustained burns on his legs from a petrol bomb thrown by a protester.
They have dominated a peaceful sit-in at the city's global airport which entered its third day on Sunday, with about a thousand demonstrators singing songs and handing out flyers to arriving travellers amid a carnival atmosphere.
China, meanwhile, has also targeted the city's corporate giants, demanding flag carrier Cathay Pacific Airways suspend staff involved in the demonstrations - a move which also brought pressure on the airline from mainland businesses.
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